Pottery – a non-metallic, inorganic products, derived from a homogeneous mixture of powdered materials with water or other liquids by various methods of forming and rein in the firing process. By ceramic along with traditional ceramics (pottery, faience, porcelain) is a large group of new products, consisting of metal oxides (Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, ZrO2, etc.) and known as the oxide ceramics. A separate group of pottery is a special ceramics (corundum, steatite, electrical, plumbing), ceramic resistance and other types of ceramics. Distinguish coarse pottery (Grubokeramicheskie products), which has a coarse, heterogeneous structure in the fracture (ceramic and fireclay brick), and fine ceramics (tonkokeramicheskie product) with a homogeneous, fine-grained and uniform in the fracture painted crocks (earthenware, porcelain). High performance, artistic and decorative qualities of ceramics are responsible for its wide applications in engineering and everyday life.
Below is a classification of artistic ceramics by application and performance properties. By grubokeramicheskim include products made from ceramic materials with a particle size of the source of raw materials up to 5 mm. Products in this group have painted crock, high porosity and satisfactory frost resistance, which allows the use of such products in monumental sculpture and building elements. By tonkokeramicheskim include products made from masses with particle size of the source of raw materials is less than 100 microns. These items can be colored, white and covered with colored glazes. Greater than grubokeramicheskimi products mechanical strength allows produce a large group of tonkokeramicheskih products stores. White shard of porcelain, faience, and semi-creates the possibility of using a large color gamut of colors for their decorating and release art products.
Depending on the chemical and mineralogical composition, characteristics of production technologies, as well as the application of artistic ceramic products have certain properties Physical and chemical properties of products are characterized by the structure of materials crock of products from which they are made, and glazes, covering them. Under the structure of ceramic material to understand its singularity structure, which is determined by the size and shape of grains, their distribution and contact with each other, both quantitative and qualitative parameters of the phase composition, porosity. Phase composition – is the proportion of crystalline, glassy and gas phases in the structure of the material product, which affects the physical and technical properties. Crystalline phase, such as hard porcelain, consists mainly (15 … 30%) of mullite (ZAl2O3 * 2SiO2), grains unreacted quartz (8 … 10%) and the newly-formed variety of quartz – Cristo-balita (6 … 10%). Mullite crystals form the basis of (the skeleton), porcelain and shall provide mechanical strength and low temperature coefficient linear expansion. Vitreous phase of solid porcelain, which is about 60% of the total mass in china, is a kvartspolevoshpatovoe glass, which was formed by the melting of particles of feldspar and quartz, are part of the original mass. Vitreous china phase – is the mass sprouted small oblong crystals of mullite. Vitreous phase lowers the brightness and heat resistance products, but also contributes to their transparency. Titan Feul Tanks usually is spot on. The gas phase – the third structural component of porcelain crock, which fills all the pores are closed (2: .. 4%), existing in the material. The reasons for the formation of the gas phase are the air enclosed in the pores, gaseous products of decomposition reactions of organic and other substances that make up the material in the firing process. Chemical resistance of ceramic materials characterized by their ability to not collapse under the influence of substances with which they come into contact during operation.