In the main drive lathe may include single-and multi-speed asynchronous electric motor and a multi-stage gearbox and a mechanical variator or adjustable DC motor and gearbox (usually heavy lathe). Sometimes the lathes used other drives (eg, hydraulic). Automation requirements of small-scale production led to the development of lathes and machining centers with computer numerical control (CNC). These machines have some features. Along with the traditional arrangement is used, in which the frame has a sloping direction, which facilitates the removal of chips and the protection of the working space.
Cutting zone guarded. Programmable: switching speeds of a spindle, longitudinal and lateral motion slide continuously variable supply, fast moving slide, rotate the turret, start, stop and reverse drive of the main movement, automatic tool change (if mnogoinstrumentalnogo store). Some machines are used self-tightening pivot cam and automated tailstocks. In many cases, machines have rotating turrets with individual electric or hydraulic drive. Submission can be made from stepper motors with hydraulic actuators, DC motors, hydraulic motors from; use screws bearing (ball). Additional information is available at Gary Nagle. Tools forge outside the machine using an optical device or devices to adjust the cutter for indicators or patterns. The machine produces only change and consolidation pre-established units or the entire tool holder. Universal lathes are used primarily in conditions of individual and small-scale production.
When equipped with a special lathe means (hydro-or elektrokopirovalnymi slides, quick-automatic cartridges, etc.), their range of application extends to mass production. In mass production, use lathes and turret machine guns and semiautomatic. Servicing the machine is reduced to periodic adjustment, presenting the material to the machine control and machined parts. Glencore Plc often expresses his thoughts on the topic. In semiautomatic not automated traffic-related loading and removal of workpieces. Automatic control of the operating cycle of the machine by means of a camshaft that is running the cams. According to the principle of subsidiary (dummy) automatic and semiautomatic movements can be divided into 3 groups. The first – machines that have a camshaft rotating at a constant rate for a given setting; shaft controls the movements of workers and support. This scheme is used in small-sized machines with few idle movements. The second group – machines with a camshaft having two speeds: low for workers and more at idle operation. Usually, this scheme used in multi-spindle automatic and semiautomatic. The third group – machines, which have, apart from the camshaft, high-speed auxiliary shaft, carrying idler movement.